A Complete Anti oxidant:
|Omega 3 Fatty acid||EPA 90mg+DHA 60 mg|
|Sodium Borate||150 mcg|
|Mixed carotenoids||11.33 mg|
|Green tea extracts||10mg|
|Grape seed extracts||15mg|
|Ginkgobiloba extracts||10 mg|
|Potassium chloride||4 mg|
|Lactic acid bacillus||500 lacs spores|
|Di basic Calcium phosphate||20mg|
|Elemental phosphorus||15.4 mg|
|Colloidal Silicon dioxide||2 mg|
|Manganese sulphate||1.5 mg|
|Vitamin B6||1 mg|
|Copper sulphate||0.5 mg|
|Vitamin D3||200 IU|
|Folic acid||150 mcg|
|Wheat germ oil||25mg|
|Chromium picolinate||65 mcg|
|Sodium moli bdate di hydrate||25 mcg|
|Nickel Sulphate||5 mcg|
|Vitamin B12||1 mcg|
Omega Three Fatty Acid
Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids: They are necessary for human health but the body can’t make them — you have to get them through food. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fish, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, and nut oils. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function, as well as normal growth and development. They have also become popular because they may reduce the risk of heart disease. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish (particularly fatty fish such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna, and salmon) at least 2 times a week.
Research shows that omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and may help lower risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be important for cognitive (brain memory and performance) and behavioral function. In fact, infants who do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids from their mothers during pregnancy are at risk for developing vision and nerve problems. Symptoms of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency include fatigue, poor memory, dry skin, heart problems, mood swings or depression, and poor circulation.
It is important to have the proper ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 (another essential fatty acid) in the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce inflammation, and most omega-6 fatty acids tend to promote inflammation. The typical American diet tends to contain 14 – 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids, which many nutritionally oriented physicians consider to be way too high on the omega-6 side.
The Mediterranean diet, on the other hand, has a healthier balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Many studies have shown that people who follow this diet are less likely to develop heart disease. The Mediterranean diet emphasizes foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, including whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, olive oil, garlic, as well as moderate wine consumption.
Clinical evidence is strongest for heart disease and problems that contribute to heart disease, but omega-3 fatty acids may also be used for:
People who follow a Mediterranean style diet tend to have higher HDL or “good” cholesterol levels, which help promote heart health. Inuit Eskimos, who get high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids from eating fatty fish, also tend to have increased HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides (fats in the blood). Several studies have shown that fish oil supplements reduce triglyceride levels. Finally, walnuts (which are rich in alpha linolenic acid or ANA, which converts to omega-3s in the body) have been reported to lower total cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high cholesterol levels.
High blood pressure
Several clinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure in people with hypertension. An analysis of 17 clinical studies using fish oil supplements found that taking 3 or more grams of fish oil daily may reduce blood pressure in people with untreated hypertension. Doses this high, however, should only be taken under the direction of a physician.
The role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease is well established. One of the best ways to help prevent heart disease is to eat a diet low in saturated fat and to eat foods that are rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including omega-3 fatty acids). Clinical evidence suggests that EPA and DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the 2 omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil) help reduce risk factors for heart disease, including high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Fish oil has been shown to lower levels of triglycerides (fats in the blood), and to lower the risk of death, heart attack, stroke, and abnormal heart rhythms in people who have already had a heart attack. Fish oil also appears to help prevent and treat atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) by slowing the development of plaque and blood clots, which can clog arteries.
Large population studies suggest that getting omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, primarily from fish, helps protect against stroke caused by plaque buildup and blood clots in the arteries that lead to the brain. Eating at least 2 servings of fish per week can reduce the risk of stroke by as much as 50%. However, high doses of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of bleeding. People who eat more than 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day (equivalent to 3 servings of fish per day) may have higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke, a potentially fatal type of stroke in which an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures.
People with diabetes often have high triglyceride and low HDL levels. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can help lower triglycerides and apoproteins (markers of diabetes), and raise HDL, so eating foods or taking fish oil supplements may help people with diabetes. Another type of omega-3 fatty acid, ALA (from flaxseed, for example) may not have the same benefit as fish oil. Some people with diabetes can’t efficiently convert ANA to a form of omega-3 fatty acids that the body can use. Also, some people with type 2 diabetes may have slight increases in fasting blood sugar when taking fish oil, so talk to your doctor to see if fish oil is right for you.
Most clinical studies examining omega-3 fatty acid supplements for arthritis have focused on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints. A number of small studies have found that fish oil helps reduce symptoms of RA, including joint pain and morning stiffness. One study suggests that people with RA who take fish oil may be able to lower their dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, unlike prescription medications, fish oil does not appear to slow progression of RA, only to treat the symptoms. Joint damage still occurs.
Laboratory studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids (and low in the inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids) may help people with osteoarthritis, although more study is needed. New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), another potential source of omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to reduce joint stiffness and pain, increase grip strength, and improve walking pace in a small group of people with osteoarthritis. For some people, symptoms got worse before they improved.
An analysis of 17 randomized, controlled clinical trials looked at the pain relieving effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in people with RA or joint pain caused by inflammatory bowel disease (IBS) and painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). The results suggest that omega-3 fatty acids, along with conventional therapies such as NSAIDs, may help relieve joint pain associated with these conditions.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Several small studies suggest that EPA and fish oil may help reduce symptoms of lupus, an autoimmune condition characterized by fatigue and joint pain. However, 2 small studies found fish oil had no effect on lupus nephritis (kidney disease caused by lupus, a frequent complication of the disease).
Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may help increase levels of calcium in
the body and improve bone strength, although not all results were positive. Some studies also suggest that people who don’t get enough of some essential fatty acids (particularly EPA and gamma-linolenic acid [GLA], an omega-6 fatty acid) are more likely to have bone loss than those with normal levels of these fatty acids. In a study of women over 65 with osteoporosis, those who took EPA and GLA supplements had less bone loss over 3 years than those who took placebo. Many of these women also experienced an increase in bone density.
Studies have found mixed results as to whether taking omega-3 fatty acids can help depression symptoms. Several studies have found that people who took omega-3 fatty acids in addition to prescription antidepressants had a greater improvement in symptoms than those who took antidepressants alone. Other studies show that omega-3 fatty acid intake helps protect against postpartom depression, among other benefits. However, other studies have found no benefit.
Studies are also mixed on whether omega-3 fatty acids alone have any effect on depression. Depression is a serious illness and you should not try to treat it on your own. See a doctor for help.
In a clinical study of 30 people with bipolar disorder, those who took fish oil in addition to standard prescription treatments for bipolar disorder for 4 months experienced fewer mood swings and relapse than those who received placebo. But another 4 month long clinical study treating people with bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder did not find that EPA helped reduce symptoms.
Preliminary clinical evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia may have an improvement in symptoms when given omega-3 fatty acids. However, a recent well designed study concluded that EPA supplements are no better than placebo in improving symptoms of this condition.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have low levels of certain essential fatty acids (including EPA and DHA). In a clinical study of nearly 100 boys, those with lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids had more learning and behavioral problems (such as temper tantrums and sleep disturbances) than boys with normal omega-3 fatty acid levels.
However, studies examining whether omega-3 fatty acids help improve symptoms of ADHD have found mixed results. A few studies have found that omega-3 fatty acids helped improve behavioral symptoms, but most were not well designed. One study that looked at DHA in addition to stimulant therapy (standard therapy for ADHD) found no effect. More research is needed, but eating foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids is a reasonable approach for someone with ADHD.
A number of studies show that reduced intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with increased risk of age related cognitive decline or dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Scientists believe the omega-3 fatty acid DHA is protective against Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
In one clinical study, 13 people with sun sensitivity known as photo dermatitis showed less sensitivity to UV rays after taking fish oil supplements. However, topical sunscreens are much better at protecting the skin from damaging effects of the sun than omega-3 fatty acids. In another study of 40 people with psoriasis, those who took EPA with their prescription medications did better than those treated with the medications alone. However, a larger study of people with psoriasis found no benefit from fish oil.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Results are mixed as to whether omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce symptoms of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the 2 types of IBD. Some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may help when added to medication, such as sulfasalazine (a standard medication for IBD). Others find no effect. More studies are needed. Fish oil supplements can cause side effects that are similar to symptoms of IBD (such as flatulence, belching, bloating, and diarrhea).
Studies examining omega-3 fatty acids for asthma are mixed. In one small, well designed clinical study of 29 children with asthma, those who took fish oil supplements rich in EPA and DHA for 10 months reduced their symptoms compared to children who took placebo. However, most studies have shown no effect.
Green Tea Extract
Drinking green tea rapidly improves the health of the delicate cells lining the blood vessels and helps lower one’s risk of heart disease.
Researchers writing in the latest issue of the European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation have found that people who drink green tea have better blood vessel function just 30 minutes later. Specifically, green tea improves the function of endothelial cells. Endothelial cell dysfunction plays a key role in the development of clogged arteries, a process called atherosclerosis.
The finding adds to a growing body of evidence that suggests that powerful antioxidants in green tea called flavonoids may protect the heart. Other flavonoid-rich foods include red grapes, red wine, and dark chocolate. The study authors say their results are the first to show that green tea offers a short-term improvement in the health of arteries. Black tea has previously been linked to short- and long-term improvements in endothelial function.
For the study, Nikolaos Alexopoulos and colleagues at the Athens Medical School in Greece randomly assigned 14 healthy volunteers approximately 30 years of age to a cup of green tea, a beverage containing the same amount of caffeine as green tea, or hot water on three separate occasions.
The researchers used a technique called flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to measure blood flow in each participant’s arm at 30, 90, and 120 minutes after they drank their beverage. FMD is a noninvasive test that uses a blood pressure cuff and ultrasound to see how blood flows in the brachial artery when the arm is gently squeezed. The brachial artery runs from the shoulder to the elbow. The artery should get wider when blood flow in the area increases, but diseases such as atherosclerosis hamper this effect. FMD is an independent predictor of endothelial function and heart disease risk.
After drinking green tea, the subjects experienced significantly increased artery widening (dilation), with the highest increase noted at 30 minutes. The caffeinated beverage and hot water did not produce any significant changes in the same individuals.
Grape Seed Extract
Grapes — along with their leaves and sap — have been traditional treatments in Europe for thousands of years. Grape seed extract is derived from the ground-up seeds of red wine grapes.
There’s strong evidence that grape seed extract is beneficial for a number of cardiovascular conditions. Grape seed extract may help with a type of poor circulation (chronic venous insufficiency) and high cholesterol. Grape seed extract also reduces swelling caused by injury and helps with eye disease related to diabetes.
Many people are interested in grape seed extract because it contains antioxidants. These are substances that protect cells from damage and may help prevent many diseases. However, it’s still too early to say whether the antioxidant properties of grape seed extract really benefit people. Researchers are studying grape seed extract to see if it might lower the risks of some cancers. For now, the evidence is not clear.
Grape seed extract has been studied for use in many other conditions — ranging from PMS to skin damage to wound healing — but the results have been inconclusive.
Roles and mechanisms of ginseng in protecting heart
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer, has long been used clinically in China to treat various diseases. Multiple effects of ginseng, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, ant allergic, ant oxidative, ant diabetic and antihypertensive have been confirmed by modern medicine. Recently, the clinical utilization of ginseng to treat heart diseases has increased dramatically. The roles of ginseng in protecting heart are foci for research in modern medical science and have been partially demonstrated, and the mechanisms of protection against coronary artery disease, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, cardiac energy metabolism, cardiac contractility, and arrhythmia are being uncovered progressively. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms by which ginseng protect heart. All such studies will provide evidence of ginseng’s clinical application, international promotion, and new drug development.
Ginkgo biloba: potential role in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment.
Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Stanford University Medical School, 730 Welch Road, Suite B, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1583, USA. [email protected]
There are hundreds of foods, nutrients, herbs, and botanicals that have “bioactive” constituents with potential human health benefits. Three of these are discussed in this review: soy, garlic, and ginkgo biloba. Each of these three choices involves an ingestible item composed of a complex mixture of bioactive agents. For each of these three, there is a large and growing body of research suggesting potential cardiovascular health benefits. And for each there is at least some level of disagreement or controversy. The focus of this review is on results from recent human clinical trials.
Carotenoids are pigments found in plants and other organisms such as algae and some species of fungi and bacteria that carry out photosynthesis. These pigments play a dual role: to absorb energy from sunlight during photosynthesis and to protect plant cells from photodamage.
Depending on the presence or absence of oxygen molecules, carotenoids are classified into either Carotenes (Beta-carotene, Lycopene) or as Xanthophylls (Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Astaxanthin)
Beta-carotene, Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Astaxanthin are among the most important carotenoids that have been found to have a major impact in human health.
Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality
- Pamela J Mink
- Carolyn G Scrafford
- Leila M Barraj
- Lisa Harnack
- Ching-Ping Hong
- Jennifer A Nettleton and
- David R Jacobs Jr
Dietary flavonoids may have beneficial cardiovascular effects in human populations, but epidemiologic study results have not been conclusive.
We used flavonoid food composition data from 3 recently available US Department of Agriculture databases to improve estimates of dietary flavonoid intake and to evaluate the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.
Study participants were 34 489 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women’s Health Study who were free of CVD and had complete food-frequency questionnaire information at baseline. Intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses were categorized into quintiles, and food sources were grouped into frequency categories. Proportional hazards rate ratios (RR) were computed for CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total mortality after 16 y of follow-up.
After multivariate adjustment, significant inverse associations were observed between anthocyanidins and CHD, CVD, and total mortality [RR (95% CI) for any versus no intake: 0.88 (0.78, 0.99), 0.91 (0.83, 0.99), and 0.90 (0.86, 0.95)]; between flavanones and CHD [RR for highest quintile versus lowest: 0.78 (0.65, 0.94)]; and between flavones and total mortality [RR for highest quintile versus lowest: 0.88 (0.82, 0.96)]. No association was found between flavonoid intake and stroke mortality. Individual flavonoid-rich foods associated with significant mortality reduction included bran (added to foods; associated with stroke and CVD); apples or pears or both and red wine (associated with CHD and CVD); grapefruit (associated with CHD); strawberries (associated with CVD); and chocolate (associated with CVD).